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The Churchill Society
London.

There are vast numbers,
not only in this Island but in every land,
who will render faithful service in this war,
but whose names will never be known, 
whose deeds will never be recorded.


Winston Churchill.
14th July 1940

Schools

WHO WAS CHURCHILL?


CHRONOLOGY

THE MAIN INDEX

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Flanders PoppyThe purpose of these pages is to tell the story of Churchill's life - not to give a detailed account of the wars he was involved in, for that is a vast subject.

Month by month factual and photographic calendars of the Ist World War
1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918.

 It is important to remember that heavy censorship of news took place throughout them, and therefore knowledge of many of these events was not available until long after they happened - or until after the wars had ended.

Explanatory notes are given against some of these dates, but to read about particular battles or political events please go to Bibliography

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1918

Sargents famous portrait of blinded soldiers.

Sargent's famous portrait of blinded soldiers.

It is impossible to see in this photograph, but when looking at the original painting, one is shocked to see through the gaps between the soldiers how the artist has painted other soldiers playing football in the distance. In this way he brings home the horror of war injuries - especially blindness caused by gas.

JANUARY

President Woodrow Wilson lays a programme for peace before Congress.

22nd

Restaurants in UK ordered not to serve meat on two days per week.

23rd

103 British sailors lost at sea when two submarines collide in night exercises.

FEBRUARY 1918

Rationing of meat, butter and margarine comes into force in London.

 

Mutilated unburied Solciers.

Mutilated unburied Soldiers.

MARCH 1918

3rd

Bolsheviks sign a peace treaty with Germany giving up all claims to Poland, the Baltic States,the Ukraine, White Russia, Finland, and Bessarabia.

Meat rationing introduced in UK.

7th.

Bolsheviks change their name to The Russian Communist Party and male Moscow the Russian capital in place of Petrograd.

18th

Germans repulsed on the Belgium front.

21st

German offensive in Picardy begins.

23rd

Paris shelled.

Butter, margarine, and meat rationing introduced in UK.

29th

 

Death and decay in a water filled crater

Death and decay in a water filled crater.

German shell destroys Paris Church during Good Friday Service killing 75 and injuring 90 people.

APRIL 1918

9th

German offensive on the Lys in Flanders begins.

12th

"Backs to the Wall'   Order of the Day issued by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig.

14th

Marshal Foch appointed as General-Chief-of the Allied Armies in France.

1st

Royal Flying Corp and Royal Naval Air Squadron
constituted into the Royal Air Force. Women's RAF founded.

Food rationing introduced throughout the UK.

22nd

British naval attack on Zeebrugge.

24th

German offensive towards Amiens halted by the Australians at Villers-Bretonneux.

25th

Last German Naval action.

 

Daily burials

Daily Burials

MAY 1918

9th and 10th

Naval raid on Ostend.

27th

German offensive on the Aisne begins.

29th

British and Dominion forces attack the Hindenberg Line.

JUNE 1918

15th to 18th

Battle of Piave.

21st

American troops - after weeks of fighting - take Belleau Woods.

JULY 1918

German troops, reaching the Marne, were beaten back by the French Army
and the tide of the war turned in the Allies favour.

6th

Spanish Influenza outbreak becomes an epidemic.

AUGUST 1918

2nd

1,500 British led force seizes Archangel to set up a base form which to attack Germany.

Allies attack with 450 tanks near the Somme and took the surrender of thousands of Germans prisoners. Churchill's tank ideas had worked.

31st

To date the war has cost France 38 Billion Francs.

SEPTEMBER 1918

19th

Offensive in Palestine begins ( Battle of Megiddo).

Allied counter offensive succeeded into breaking the Hindenberg line and into open country the horror of mud and trench warfare was now a thing of the past.

30th

Bulgaria sues for peace.

OCTOBER 1918

HMS Argus - the world's first aircraft carrier, goes into service with the Royal Navy.

1st

Allied Forces enter Damascus.

19th

World epidemic of influenza kills millions.

21st

Surrender of German Fleet.

24th

Battle of Vittorio begins.

30th

Turkey signs and Armistice with the Allies.

430 die at sea when a US troop ships collide.

587 civilians die at sea when U boat sinks mail boat.

Mutiny and strikes by German sailors spreads to ports and cities.
Revolutionaries on the streets of Berlin

Spanish 'flu costs the lives of 2,225 persons in the UK.

NOVEMBER 1918

3rd

Austria -Hungary sues for peace.

9th

Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and flees with possessions and servants to Dutch frontier.

11th

Armistice between Allies and Germany. German Republic declared.

Official War Office figures declare 3 million British causalities including nearly a million dead. The total war dead is assessed at over 10 millions souls.

DECEMBER 1918

General election in Britain and women over 30 given the vote for the first time.

1919

JUNE 1919

German Fleet scuttled in Scapa Flow.

Flanders PoppyThe End of The Great War.

1918 was a year of total disorganisation and sudden - almost unexpected victory. Britain and France - with newly arrived Americans - seemed almost to face defeat, when the Germans proved that trench warfare could be overcome: but their attacks petered out in total exhaustion and gave the Allies their chance to break out.

The Italians broke out in in their Northern front and took huge numbers of German prisoners. Damascus fell to the Allies

An attack through the well defended Hindenberg line by the Allies was done with astonishing speed. This achievement has never been fully acknowledged. This victory led to the Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicating and going to live in comfortable retirement (!) whilst leaving to his politicians - who had little say in the war - to sue for a humiliating peace treaty.

British historians have long held the mistaken view that the first world world was a senseless waste of 908,371 young and older men and vast amount of national treasure.

For over 300 hundred years England had pursued a European policy of the  'balance of continental powers' to ensure that neither Philip II Spain, Louis XIV or Napoleon would control the Channel ports and thus threaten British shipping or mercantile fleets.

By 1914 Kaiser Wilhelm's II's Germany had built a high seas fleet capable of challenging the Royal Navy. "I believe war is inevitable with Britain . . . and the sooner the better" 
said Helmuth von Moltke in 1912 and the Kaiser agreed.

'Jews and mosquitoes are a nuisance that humanity must get rid of in some way or another'
wrote Kaiser Wilhelm II.  

'I believe the best way would be gas!'.  

Germany under the Kaiser planned the invasion of France and Belgium with the intention of subjugating them.

The historian John Rohl claims the Kaiser expressed his intention to be to create
'a united states of Europe under German leadership' 

Such an achievement would have spelled mortal danger for Britain.

Even fighting on two fronts Germany, in the early years of the war, defeated Russia.

(15 years later Hitler claimed that Germany had not been beaten, but was betrayed by weak democrats and thus the war broke out again in 1939 - and was to be known as The Second World War; during which 6 million Jews and hundreds of thousands of other peoples were sent to the gas chambers.

Let me finish this phase of our story of WHO WAS CHURCHILL? by quoting what the youthful Winston Churchill wrote in his second book - written long long before the Great War started.

"Year after year,  and stretching back to an indefinite horizon,  we see the figures of the odd and bizarre potentates against whom the British arms continually are turned.

They pass a long procession:  The Akhund of Swat;   Cetwayo,  brandishing an assegai (a spear) as naked as himself;  Kruger,  singing a psalm of victory: Osman Digna,  the Immortal and Irretrievable;  Theebaw,  with his Umbrella;  Lebengula,  gazing fondly at the pages of TRUTH ,  Prempeh,  abasing himself in the dust;   the Mad Mullah on his white ass;  and the latest of all,  the Khalifa in his coach of state.   It is like watching a pantomime scene at Drury Lane.

These extraordinary foreign figures - each with his complete set of crimes,  horrible customs and 'minor peculiarities' - march one by one from the dark wings of barbarism up to the bright footlights of civilisation.

For a space their names are on the tongues of men. The Sovereign on the Throne, the Minister in his Cabinet,  the General in his tent,  pronounce - or mis pronounce - their styles and titles. A thousand compositors set out the same combination of letters for their newspapers. The street boys bellows their names in ours ears. The artisan laughs at them at night in his cottage. The child in the nursery is cajoled into virtue or silence by the repetition of the dread accents.

And then the world audience claps their hands,  amused, yet impatient,  and the potentates and their trains pass on, some to exile,  some to prison,   some to death."

There - in Winston's youthful prose - is a lively survey of Victorian encounters with hostile autocrats.

Even at this early age the young Churchill knew that over a far longer period of history than he wrote about in the above book, British forces had been measured upon far greater issues and against far more powerful autocracies.

He knew long before the Great War started that autocrats (and bureaucrats) who who seek to dominate the whole of Europe, sooner or later will come up against Britain's enmity.

For Britain has never allowed one man to to rule the continent. Nor will it permit it today. (Written in 1996)

Flanders PoppyThe purpose of these pages is to tell the story of Churchill's life - not to give a detailed account of the wars he was involved in, for that is a vast subject.

Month by month factual and photographic calendars of the Ist World War

1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918.

It is important to remember that heavy censorship of news took place throughout them, and therefore knowledge of many of these events was not available until long after they happened - or until after the wars had ended. Morevover, the experiences of the soldiers were so terrible, that of the the few who returned, none spoke of them for many many years.

Explanatory notes are given against some of these dates, but to read about particular battles or political events please go to Bibliography

___________________

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THE STORY OF THE GREAT WAR.

1914.

The causes
of the Gt War.

1914.

Unfolding events
in the summer.

1914.

Autumn and early
winter

 

1915.

 

1916.

 

1917.

 

1918.

Armistice.

 

1919.

The aftermath.

The 1920's

 

. .SCHOOL INDEX .

 CHRONOLOGY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

THE MAIN INDEX

Search the web site.

Contact the society.

 

 

...................Ladybird.

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